[閱讀筆記] 性格及價值觀 Personality and Values

Personality 性格


Personality 性格: the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.

Personality traits 性格特質: enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.

性格描述了一個人的行為.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)


MBTI根據下列4個層面對性格加以分類:

Extraverted (E) v.s. Introverted (I)
Extraverted: outgoing, socialable, assertive.
Introverted: quiet, shy.
Sensing (S) v.s. Intuitive (N)
Sensing: practical, prefer routine and order, focus on details.
Intuitive: rely on unconscious process, look at the "big picture".
Thinker (T) v.s. Feeling (F)
Thinker: use reason and logic to handle problems.
Feeling: rely on values and emotions.
Judging (J) v.s. Perceiving (P)
Judging: want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured.
Perceiving: flexible and spontaneous.
可區分出16種性格. 但研究顯示MBTI和job performance並沒有顯著的關聯性.

The Big Five Personality Model


Big Five Model考慮下列5個層面:
Extraversion
Extraverts: gregarious 群居性的, assertive, sociable.
Introverts: reserved 冷淡的, timid 怕羞的, quiet.
Agreeableness
High on agreeableness: cooperative, warm, trusting.
Low on agreeableness: cold, disagreeable, antagonistic 反對的.
Conscientiousness 有責任感的
High on conscientiousness: responsible, organized, dependable, persistent.
Low on conscientiousness: easily distracted, disorganized, unreliable.
Emotional stability
Positive on emotional stability: calm, self-confident, secure.
Negative on emotional stability: nervous, anxious, depressed, insecure.
Openness to experience
High on openness to experience: creative, curious, artistically sensitive.
Low on openness to experience: conventional, find comfort in the familiar.
Big Five 性格特質對於組織行為的影響:

2011_05_08_BigFive

行為決定於環境及性格.
在相對弱勢的環境, 行為受性格影響較大.
在相對強勢的環境, 行為受環境影響較大. 而組織是相對強勢的環境.

Value 價值觀


Value 價值觀: basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is preferable.

Value system: a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity.

Value通常能夠說明一個人的態度, 行為及認知.

Rokeach Value Survey


RVS把Value分為兩大類:

1. Terminal values
refer to desirable end-states.

舒適的生活, 刺激的生活, 成就感, 和平, 美, 平等, 家庭安全, 自由, 滿足, 內在和諧, 成熟的愛, 國家安全, 愉快, 靈性解脫, 自尊, 社會認同, 真誠友誼, 智慧
2. Instrumental values
refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values.

雄心壯志, 心胸開放, 有能力, 令人愉快, 乾淨, 勇氣, 原諒, 助人, 誠實, 想像力豐富, 獨立, 聰明才智, 邏輯, 愛心, 服從, 禮貌, 有責任感, 自制

延伸閱讀


Organizational Behavior, 14th edition, Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. Chapter 5: Personality and Values

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