同理心 (empathy) 和同情心 (sympathy) 的區別

同理心 (empathy) 和同情心 (sympathy) 的差別, 以下這則短片 "RSA Shorts - The Power of Empathy" 有清晰的說明.



Empathy fuels connection. Sympathy drives disconnection.

4 qualities of empathy:
Perspective taking - ability to take the perspective of another person or recognize their perspective as their truth
Staying out of judgement
Recognizing emotion in other people
Communicating the emotion in other people.

Empathy is feeling WITH people.

當人們遇到挫折或困境時, empathy 的反應是同理對方的痛苦 (從自己的經驗找出類似的情境以同理對方的痛苦), 讓對方知道自己不是孤獨的:
Hey! I know what it's like down here. And you're not alone.
I don't even know what to say. I'm just glad you told me.

Sympathy 的反應是試圖鼓勵對方正面思考:
At least,...
Try to silver-lining the bad situation.
但事實上這些鼓勵經常是於事無補, 讓事情好轉通常是藉由給予對方心理上的支持 (讓對方有 connection, 有後援).