[學習筆記] Business English II

Instructor: Nancy Chen
Text Book: "PASS Cambridge BEC Preliminary", Ian Wood, Anne Williams.

Elements of Sentences

words -> phrases -> clauses -> sentences

words

synonym
antonym
homonym

clauses

independent clause (IC)
dependent clause (DC)

sentences

simple sentence

single verb.

express one idea.

e.g. S-V. S-V-O.

compound sentence

connects two or more ideas with a certain kind of connecting word

[,] and / or / so / yet / but / for

[,] either, or / neither, nor / not only, but also

[;] moreover / furthermore / also / besides

[;] however / nevertheless

[;] for example / for instance

[;] as a result / consequently / then / thus

(2+)IC, no DC.

e.g. S-V, and S-V. S-V; however, S-V.

complex sentence

connects two or more ideas with a certain kind of connecting word

[time] after/before/until/when/while/as

[cause] because/since/so that

[condition] unless/although/if/as if/whether ... or not/even though

[relation] who/whose/whom/that/which/what/whatever

IC + (1+)DC.

e.g. S-V unless S-V.

compound-complex sentence

(1+)DC + (2+)IC.

Frequency

never -> rarely -> occasionally -> sometimes -> often -> usually -> frequently -> always

Coherent Writing

topic sentence

key words

connectors

Grammatical Terms

adjective 形容詞

adverb 副詞

article 冠詞

indefinite article 不定冠詞: a, an
definite article 定冠詞: the

auxiliary verb 助動詞: be, do, have

conditional (clause) 條件(子)句: if, unless, etc

infinitive 不定詞: to see, to make, to like, etc
bare infinitive: infinitive without "to"

modal (auxiliary) verb 情態(助)動詞: can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, would

noun 名詞

concrete noun
abstract noun
countable
uncountable

object 受詞

participle 分詞

present participle 現在分詞: -ing form
past participle 過去分詞: -ed form

preposition 介系詞: to, in, behind, over, through, into, under, etc

pronoun 代名詞: it, me, you, she, they, him, her, etc

relative clause 關係子句: who, where, which, whose, that.

subject 主詞

verb 動詞

transitive verb 及物動詞
intransitive verb 不及物動詞

tense (動詞的)時態

passive form 被動式
active form 主動式

-ing form
當作動詞或形容詞用時,稱作present participle 現在分詞
當作名詞用時,稱作gerund 動名詞

simple forms: he works (present) | he worked (past) | he has worked (present perfect)
continuous forms: he is working (present) | he was working (past) | he has been working (present perfect)

short forms: be, have, do -> I'm, we've, I don't.

Nouns

Uncountable nouns

Travel

luggage/baggage/money/currency/change/equipment/information

Household items

soap/toothpaste/laundry detergent/shoe polish/paper

Food

sugar/rice/spaghetti/butter/flour/soup

Abstract uncountable nouns

advice/knowledge/progress/research/work

Materials and resources

cloth/cotton/silk/leather/wool
stone/brick/plastic/wood/timber/concrete/glass
coal/oil/fuel/gas/electricity

Nouns that are usually plural

Tools/instruments/pieces of equipment

scissors/shears/pliers/tongs/sunglasses/glasses/tweezers/handcuffs/binoculars

Things we wear

clothes/shorts/underpants/pajamas/leggings/swimming trunks/jeans/suspenders/pants/slacks/overalls

More useful words

goods[articles/items]/premises/authorities/headquarters/acoustics/contents/looks/outskirts/blues[feeling of sadness]/proceeds/whereabouts

Words with plural but used mostly with singular verbs

names of some games

billiards/dominoes/checkers/darts/craps/cards

names of subjects/activities

physics/economics/classics/gymnastics/aerobics/athletics

Countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings

stuff/material/idea of a thing in general things
glass a glass/glasses
cloth a cloth
fish fish
thread a thread

Collective nouns

Collective nouns are used to describe a group of the same things.

People

a group/crowd/gang of people
a team of surgeons/experts
crew [workers on a ship]
cast [actors in a particular production]
staff [groups who share a place of work]
public [the people as a whole]

Animals

a flock of sheep/birds
a herd of cattle/sheep/deer
a school of fish
a swarm of insects
a pack of dogs/hyenas/wolves

Things in general

a pile/heap of papers/clothes/dishes
a set of tools/pots/pans/dishes
a bunch of flowers/bananas/grapes
a clump of trees/bushes/grass/plants
a stack of chairs/tables/boxes

Affix/Suffix

Change Add
noun to verb -ise
verb to noun -tion/sion/ment
verb to person/company/machine -er/or
adjective to noun -ity/ty
adjective to adverb -ly/ily
adjective to its opposite un-/im/in
to add the meaning "do again" re-

 

Signposting

Use simple phrases as 'signposts' to guide the audience through your presentation:

To move on / To expand on / To elaborate on

To turn to / To digress 偏離主題

To recap / To go back / To summarize / To conclude

I'll begin by ... / Let's start with ... / If I could now turn to ... / My next point is ... / Now, turning to ... / Now, what about ...? / Let me now move on to ... / So that's the general picture for ... and how let's look at ... / That completes my overview of ... so now I'd like to move on to ...

Organization

Public Limited Company (Plc) - the standard legal form for a limited, public company in the UK. Only PLCs can be listed on the London Stock Exchange.

Holding Company - a parent corporation that owns enough voting stock in another corporation to control its board of directors. Holding companies traditionally own many corporations in widely different business areas.

Parent Company - a company that controls other companies by owning an influential amount of voting stock. A parent company is usually an operating company in its own right. Where is has no business of it's own, the term holding company is often preferred.

Subsidiary - a company whose voting stock is more than 50% controlled by another company, usually referred to as the parent company.

Wholly Owned Subsidiary - a subsidiary whose parent company owns 100% of its common stock.

BARRON'S Dictionary of Business Terms (2000)

http://www.investopedia.com/dictionary/

GmbH - company with limited liability. In Germany, a GmbH means that the company is incorporated, but it is not publicly traded.

AG - stock corporation. In Germany, all publicly traded companies are AG's, but not all AG's are publicly traded.

S.A. - privately-held company

http://www.corporateinformation.com/

Board of directors is elected by the shareholders of a company.

In a corporation with many different business, there may be one CEO who oversees a number of presidents, each running a different business.

Presidents often hold the position of chief opearting officer (COO).

The COO is responsible for day-to-day operations and has vice-presidents for different parts of the company reporting to him or her.

Generally, the board of directors sets the policy; the president executes the policy and reports back to the board; and finally, the board reports back to the shareholders.

http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/04/062504.asp

Revenue

turnover 營業額 margin 利潤 profit 盈利 revenue 收益

Leave

annual leave 年假 optional leave 彈性休假
marriage leave 婚假 maternity leave 產假 paternity leave 陪產假
menstruation leave 生理假
bereavement leave 喪假
official leave 公假
personal leave 事假
sick leave 病假

Verbal Impact

VARIED

Volume

Articulation

articulate: to express in words; to pronounce

Rate

Intonation

Energy/Enunciation

enunciate: to pronounce words or parts of words clearly

Determined Pauses

Telephone Communication

I. Opening

self introduction, greeting

ask for the right person

establish the connection

II. Body

identify the purpose

outline the key points

III. Closing

2C + 2R

check & confirm

record & repeat

Examples

Opening

Who's calling?

Hello, my name's ... calling from ...

Ask for the right person

I'd like to speak to ..., please.

Can I speak to ..., please?

Can I have extension ..., please?

Could I have the ... Department, please?

Misc.

vaccine 疫苗 pharmaceuticals 藥物

stationery 文具

denotative 表示的 connotative 隱含的

Fruit

pineapple 鳳梨 / pear 洋梨 / avocado 鱷梨

apricot 杏仁 / nut 堅果;核果

date 棗 / plum 洋李;梅子 / fig 無花果

prune 梅乾 / raisin 葡萄乾

plantain 大蕉

lychee/litchi 荔枝

passion fruit 百香果

kiwi fruit 奇異果

starfruit 楊桃 / nectarine 油桃 / persimmon 柿

quince 一種薔薇科植物

not ripe / ripe 成熟的 / rotten 腐爛的

tropical fruits

a bunch of grapes

a bunch of bananas

berries - 莓果

raspberry 覆盆子;木莓 / cranberry 蔓越橘;小紅莓 / blackberry 黑莓 / gooseberry 醋栗;鵝莓 / loganberry 洛甘莓

citrus fruits - 柑橘類水果

orange 柳橙 / tangerine 橘子 / lime 酸橙 / grapefruit 葡萄柚 / clementine 克萊門氏小柑橘

melons - 瓜

papaya 番木瓜 / cantaloupe 羅馬甜瓜 / watermelon 西瓜 / cantaloupe 羅馬甜瓜 / honeydew melon 香蜜瓜;甘露瓜

Vegetables

lettuce 萵苣

cabbage 甘藍菜

zucchini 美洲南瓜

radish 小蘿蔔 / white radish 白蘿蔔

beet 甜菜 / beetroot 甜菜根

sweet pepper 燈籠椒 / red pepper 紅辣椒 / green pepper 青辣椒 / chili pepper

celery 芹菜 / parsley 荷蘭芹

squash 果汁飲料

turnip 蕪菁 / swede 瑞典蕪菁 / rutabaga 蕪菁甘藍 / broccoli 球花甘藍 / brussels sprouts - 球芽甘藍

scallion 青蔥 / leek 韭蔥 / spring onion 大蔥 / green onion 綠洋蔥

eggplant 茄子 / aubergine 茄子

pea 豌豆 / string bean 四季豆 / butter bean 淺色豆;利馬豆 / green bean 青豆 / broad bean 蠶豆 / aduki bean 赤豆 / kidney bean 菜豆 / runner bean 紅花菜豆 / bean sprouts 豆芽菜

artichoke 朝鮮薊 / Jerusalem artichoke 菊芋

asparagus 蘆筍

marrow 食用葫蘆 / courgette 密生西葫蘆

zucchini 美洲南瓜 / pumpkin 南瓜

parsnip 歐洲防風草

corncob 玉米的穗軸

chinese leaves 大白菜 / bok choy 白菜 / cauliflower 花椰菜

okra 秋葵

tubers 塊莖

root vegetables 根用蔬菜

Bread

crust

slice

sliced bread

roll

croissant

baguette (French stick)

loaf of bread

club sandwich / double-decker

pitta / pita

cheese and tomato roll

canapes

Cakes

doughnuts (donuts)

ring doughnut

icing sugar / powdered sugar

sponge cake

meringue

scones

chocolate eclair

gateau

waffle

Danish pastry

petits fours

Desserts (BrE also Puddings)

custard (BrE) / custard sauce (AmE)

reme brulee

trifle

profiteroles (BrE) / cream puffs (AmE)

strawberry tart

Further Reading

"The Prophet", Kahlil Gibran.