[閱讀筆記] 美語腔調發音訓練 American Accent Training

Title: American Accent Training
Author: Ann Cook
Second Edition, Date: 2000

本書之基本資料

學習美語的語調、發音及連音,讓美國人可以聽懂你說的英語。

學習的重點是反覆聆聽本書的CD,跟著CD反覆練習,讓舌頭更靈活,讓發音的方式更"標準"。一開始會不太習慣,舌頭會覺得很僵硬,因為過去的發音方式不見得是正確的,隨著不斷的練習,英語就會說得愈來愈流暢了。

美式發音法是lazy式的,嘴唇的動作很小,主要是靠咽腔發母音、舌頭發子音。

Introduction: Read This First

Tense Vowels

e, i, ɑɪ, o, u, ɑ, æ, ɑʊ

發音時需要使用臉部肌肉。

Lax Vowels

ɛ, ɪ, ʊ, ə

發音時不需要使用臉部肌肉。只需要移動舌頭後方及喉嚨。

Semivowels

ɚ, əl

W, Y, R.

 

Chapter 1 American Intonation

American Intonation Do's

發音時,字與字相連,以形成 Sound Groups

Staircase Intonation

American Intonation Don'ts

不要一個字一個字各別發音

Reduced Sounds Are "Valleys"

Weak sounds: some vowels are reduced completely to schwas, while others are only toned down. 以輕鬆的方式發音.

重音規則

複合名詞:重音在第一個字。

如 convenient store,重音在 convenient。

如 flea market, light bulb, a coffee cup。

形容詞 + 名詞:重音在名詞。

如 a clean cup, a sharp knife。

Chapter 2 Word Connections

Liaison Rule 1: 子音 + 母音

Ex. My name is... => my nay-miz

Liaison Rule 2: 子音 + 子音

如果兩個子音,發音部位很接近,這兩個子音要連結起來發音。

Ex. I've been late twice. => I'v bin la twice.

TH是特例,TH搭配特定子音時,這兩個子音會混合成複合音。

Liaison Rule 3: 母音 + 母音

發音時,這兩個母音以滑音(glide)相連結。

A glide is either a slight [y] sound or a slight [w] sound.

Ex. I also need the other one. => I(y)also need thee(y)other one.

Liaison Rule 4: T, D, S, or Z + Y

T + Y = CH

Ex. What's your name? => wəcher name

D + Y = J

Ex. Did you see it? => di jə see it

S + Y = SH

Ex. Yes, you are. => yeshu are

Z + Y = ZH

Ex. How's your family? => haozhier famlee

Chapter 3 Cat? Caught? Cut?

The [æ] Sound

Drop your jaw down as if you were going to say [ɑ]; then from that position, try to say [ɛ].

The [ɑ] Sound

Relax your tongue and drop your jaw as far down as it will go.

The Schwa [ə] Sound

Put your hand on your diaphragm and push until a grunt escapes. Don't move your jaw, tongue, or lips; just allow the sound to flow past your vocal cords.

Chapter 4 - T

Rule 1: Top of the Staircase

T is pronounced T.

Ex. Ted or Italian.

Rule 2: Middle of the Staircase

T is pronounced as D.

Ex. Betty [Beddy], Italy [Idaly].

Rule 3: Bottom of the Staircase

T is in the held position -- the tongue is in the T position, but the air is'nt released.

Ex. hot [ho(t)].

Rule 4: "Held T" Before N

Don't pop the T -- the tongue is in the T position -- but release the air with the N, not the T. There is no [t] and no [ə].

Ex. written [ri(t)n].

Rule 5: The Silent T

[t] and [n] are so close in the mouth that the [t] can simply disappear.

Ex. interview [innerview].

Chapter 5 - L

The Compound Sound of L

L is a combination of [ə] and [l].

The [ə] is created in the throat.

The [l] requires a clear movement of the tongue. First, the tip must touch behind the teeth. Then, the back of the tongue must then drop down and back for the continuing schwa sound.

L和中文"ㄌ"的發音方式有很大的差別,很容易混淆,要特別留意。

Chapter 6 - R

發音方式和中文北京腔"ㄦ"是相同的。舌頭捲起後位於嘴巴的中央處。

Chapter 7 - TH

Voiced TH

this, that, the, those, them, they, their, there, then, than, though.

發音方式類似Z,不同之處在舌頭像蛇一樣快速伸出去再縮回來。

Unvoiced TH

thank, think, thing, thermometer, theologian.

發音方式類似S,不同之處在舌頭像蛇一樣快速伸出去再縮回來。

Chapter 8 ɛ, ɪ, ʊ, ə

發音位置都在喉嚨。高度由上而下分別是ɛ, ɪ, ʊ, ə。

u v.s. ʊ

u發音位置在嘴巴前方。

ʊ發音位置在喉嚨。

i v.s. ɪ

要能夠區分:

  single stairstep double stairstep
tense beat bead
lax bit bid

i的發音和中文"一"是相同的。

ɪ的發音部位在喉嚨,臉部肌肉是不動的。

Chapter 9 - V

vf的voiced版本。

f的發音:下嘴唇提高輕觸上門牙,往外吹氣。

Chapter 10 - S,Z

s如果跟在unvoiced consonant之後,發音是s
s如果跟在vowel, voiced consonant另一個s之後,發音是z

Chapter 11 Tense and Lax Vowels

中國人不太會分辨æ,e,ɛ,要特別留意。

Chapter 12 M,N,NG

m, n, ng聲音都是從鼻子出來。

m: 嘴巴閉著。

n: 嘴巴微開,舌頭擋住空氣不從嘴巴跑出來。

ng: 同n,但舌頭背面往後方用力,在喉嚨發音。

Chapter 13 H,K,G,NG,R

h, k, g, ng, r都是在喉嚨發音。

延伸閱讀

說出好聽力 - 發音、變音、連音、弱化音、消音。

英語發音

EZ talk聽力保證班

美聲發音技巧秘笈